I already did, but did not get any actual help. After escalating the ticket, a guy called Alexander replied, and told me to check if it’s not a prepaid card, and has 3D Secure enabled. I already did that previously, but called my banking provider to confirm. They did confirm it’s a debit card and has 3D Secure enabled. There was no rejected transaction. Alexander asked for the details of my bank and country.
My current best guess on the issue is that my previous and current card have the same number, and the payment provider might be rejecting it because of that. If they cached some info on details, and the new card only differs in details, I think it might cause issues in case of a bad implementation.
Any advise is welcome!